Piling has traditionally been used for large buildings to withstand heavy loads. Piling is the basis of construction, a type of deep foundation where vertical columns of concrete, steel or wood are driven deep into the soil to support the heavy structure of the building. Though piles were initially made from timber, they are now made of concrete or reinforced steel.
Piling is important in building constructions to prevent potential ground movement and collapsing risks. There are several circumstances to determine the need for piling, such as:
The primary functions of pile foundations in construction are listed below:
Engineers consider certain factors before opting for the right type of piling for a project; these include:
Though its function remains the same, i.e. transferring the heavy load of the structure, the bottom of this pile is set on solid and robust rock or soil. Its columns cut through the soil’s weak layer, so the structure remains straight.
This type of piling is cylindrical. The force of a building is easily transferred into the soil due to friction piles at full height. Its support is directly proportional to its length, meaning the greater the depth, the more a pile can hold weight.
In this method, large holes are drilled into the ground. Then, a steel-reinforced cage is placed into holes, and mixed concrete is poured to achieve maximum strength. There are two common subtypes of bored piles:
Much force is required to hammer these piles into the ground. This pile type is suitable for non-cohesive soils or soil containing many contaminants.
Screw piles are quickly installed into the ground with less disturbance and vibration. Steel piles made from hollow steel shafts with helices attached are screwed into the ground. This method is ideal for many soils, including those with liquefaction potential.
Timber piling is the oldest method and has been used in construction for ages. These piles are installed either with a driving method or a vibration method. If they are correctly installed, they are an economical piling method and provide the safest foundation for both permanent and temporary structures.
A steel pile is a fabricated or roll-shaped sheet pile. Construction workers install steel piles using vibration hammers that penetrate solid soil and rock easily. This piling method is incredibly beneficial and can bear up to 100 tons per pile.
Concrete piles are used to construct offshore projects like oil rigs, bridges or floating airports. They can easily withstand vertical structure loads.